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[奥风英语初中语法讲义]第一讲:名词  

2008-11-15 14:13:59|  分类: 资料文献 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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更多讲义及习题答案请登陆奥风英语网www.chinaoften.com 查看。参加奥风英语在线初中语法辅导课程请联系QQ116681170。

 

奥风英语初中语法讲义(含精选习题及答案解析http://www.chinaoften.com/grammar/ShowClass.asp?ClassID=125

 

I. 名词的种类:

 

专有名词

普通名词

国名地名人名,团体机构名称

可数名词

不可数名词

个体名词

集体名词

抽象名词

物质名词

II. 名词的数:

1. 规则名词的复数形式:名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s-es。现将构成方法与读音规则列表如下:

 

规则

例词

1

一般情况在词尾加-s

map-maps, sea-seas, girl-girls, day-days

2

s, x, ch, sh结尾的名词后加-es

class-classes, box-boxes, watch-watches, dish-dishes

3

-f-fe结尾的词

-f-fev再加-es

leaf-leaves, thief-thieves, knife-knives,  wife-wives, half-halves

-s

chief-chiefs, proof-proofs, roof-roofs

4

以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,变yi-es

party-parties, family-families, story-stories, city-cities

5

以元音字母加y结尾的名词,或专有名词以y结尾的,加-s

toy-toys, boy-boys, day-days, ray-rays, Henry-Henrys

6

以辅音字母加-o结尾的名词

一般加-es

Negro-Negroes, hero-heroes, potato-potatoes, tomato-tomatoes

不少外来词加-s

piano-pianos, photo-photos, auto-autos, kilo-kilos, solo-solos

两者皆可

zero-zeros/zeroes, volcano-volcanoes/ volcanos

7

以元音字母加-o结尾的名词加-s

radio-radios, bamboo-bamboos, zoo-zoos

8

-th结尾的名词加-s

truth-truths, mouth-mouths, month-months, path-paths,

 

2. 不规则名词复数:英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,现归纳如下:

 

规则

例词

1

改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式

man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice

2

单复数相同

sheep, deer, means, works, fish, yuan, jin,

3

只有复数形式

trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses,

4

一些集体名词总是用作复数

people, police

5

部分集体名词既可以作单数(整体)也可以作复数(成员)

class, family, crowd, couple, group, government, population, team, public, party

6

复数形式表示特别含义

customs(海关), times(时代), spirits(情绪), drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜)

7

表示某国人

-s

Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans

单复数同形

Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese

-man-woman结尾的改为-men,-women

Englishmen, Frenchwomen

8

合成名词

将主体名词变为复数

sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends

无主体名词时将最后一部分变为复数

grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches

将两部分变为复数

women singers, men servants

 

III. 名词的所有格:

名词在句中表示所有关系的语法形式叫做名词所有格。所有格分两种:一是名词词尾加’s构成,二是由介词of加名词构成。前者多表示有生命的东西,后者多表示无生命的东西。

 

1. ’s所有格的构成:

 

单数名词在末尾加’s

the boy’s father, Jack’s book, her son-in-law’s photo,

复数名词

一般在末尾加

the teachers’ room, the twins’ mother,

不规则复数名词后加’s

the children’s toys, women’s rights,

s结尾的人名所有格加’s或者

Dickens’ novels, Charles’s job, the Smiths’ house

表示各自的所有关系时,各名词末尾均须加’s

Japan’s and America’s problems, Jane’s and Mary’s bikes

表示共有的所有关系时在最后一词末加’s

Japan and America’s problems, Jane and Mary’s father

表示"某人家""店铺",所有格后名词省略

the doctor’s, the barber’s, the tailor’s, my uncle’s

 

2. ’s所有格的用法:

 

表示时间

today’s newspaper, five weeks’ holiday

2

表示自然现象

the earth’s atmosphere, the tree’s branches

3

表示国家城市等地方的名词

the country’s plan, the world’s population, China’s industry

4

表示工作群体

the ship’s crew, majority’s view, the team’s victory

5

表示度量衡及价值

a mile’s journey, five dollars’ worth of apples

6

与人类活动有特殊关系的名词

the life’s time, the play’s plot

7

某些固定词组

a bird’s eye view, a stone’s throw, at one’s wit’s end(不知所措)

 

3. of所有格的用法:

 

用于无生命的东西:the legs of the chair, the cover of the book

用于有生命的东西,尤其是有较长定语时:the classrooms of the first-year students

用于名词化的词:the struggle of the oppressed 

 

例题解析:

 

1. (   ) His grandfather is _____.

    A) Robert Bob      B) Tom Black       C) Kate White      D) Black Green

   

2. (   ) _____ are playing tennis in the playground.

    A) The Browns     B) The Brown's      C) Browns         D) Brown's

   

3. (   ) Be careful. There is a _____ hole in the ground.

   A) two-foot-deep     B) two-feet-deep      C) two-foot deep     D) two-feet deep

 

4. (   ) He’s got bad toothache. He’d better go to _____.

   A) dentist                 B) the dentist            C) the dentist’s         D) see the dentists

   

5. (   ) The _____ teachers wondered if the _____ students were in trouble.

   A) woman, boy        B) woman, boys       C) women, boy        D) women, boys

   

6. (   ) _____ came that Houston Rocket won again and Yao Ming got the most scores.

   A) A news                B) Message              C) Word                  D) Words

   

7. (   ) All of a sudden, something on the ground caught _____.

   A) his eye                 B) his eyes                C) his own eyes        D) eyes of his own

 

8. (   ) The lady with long _____ found her husband had already got three gray _____.

   A) hair, hair              B) hair, hairs             C) hairs, hair             D) hairs, hair

    

 

名词练习:

 

Choose the best answer (选择最恰当的答案,用ABCD表示,填入空格内):

(   ) 1. The police ______ running after the thief when I passed the street.

  A. are         B. is              C. were            D. was

(   ) 2. It’s seven o’clock. _____ are sitting at table.

   A) Mr. Greens      B) The Green's   C) The Greens            D) Greens

(   ) 3. Your brother is the same ______ me.

   A) old as               B) age as                     C) old like            D) age like

(   ) 4. ________ trees are cut down in the forests every year.

 A. Thousand   B. Thousands       C. Thousand of      D. Thousands of

(   ) 5. ——What can I do for you?
      ——I'd like two _______.
   A. box of apple          B. boxes of apples       C. box of apples  D. boxes of apple
(   ) 6. What kind of ______ do you like best?

   A) watermelon           B) the watermelon   C) a watermelon D) watermelons

(   ) 7. Look at this magazine. Let’s do the ______ about eating habits.

   A) quiz                  B) list                    C) cooking                D) dinner

(   ) 8.Help yourself to ______.

A. some chickens   B. a chicken     C. some chicken     D. any chicken

(   ) 9.________ it is today!

A. What fine weather               B. What a fine weather

C. How a fine weather              D. How fine a weather

(   ) 10. Which is the way to the __________?

 A. shoe factory    B. shoes factory   C. shoe's factory   D. shoes' factory

(   ) 11.This class _______ now. Miss Gao teaches them.

 A. are studying   B. is studying       C. be studying    D. studying

(   ) 12. We will have a ______ holiday after the exam.

 A. two month    B. two-month        C. two month's   D. two-months

(   ) 13. Our bodies need food to give us ______.

   A) health               B) strong                     C) energy                D) taste

(   ) 14. Our sports meeting will be held ________.

 A. on 24, Tuesday, April           B. in April 24, Tuesday

C. on Tuesday, April 24            D. in April Tuesday 24

(   ) 15._________ people here are very friendly to us.

A. The         B. /              C. A               D. An

(   ) 16. .There is no enough ________ in the corner to put the table.

 A. place        B. room          C. floor            D. ground

(   ) 17. He has got _____ to tell you.

   A) a good news   B) some news      C) a lot news        D) many news

(   ) 18. Look! Those three _______ are talking with the three _______.

  A. Englishmen, Germen            B. Englishmans, Germans

  C. Englishmen, Germans            D. Englishmans, Germen

  
更多讲义及习题答案请登陆奥风英语网www.chinaoften.com 查看。参加奥风英语在线初中语法辅导课程请联系QQ116681170。

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