注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

奥风教育的博客

中英双语美文佳作

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

Hello, I'm the host of the blog you're visiting now. Thank you for your presence. I've been working as a teacher of English since ten years ago. Hope we'll be friends.

网易考拉推荐

《独立宣言》背后鲜为人知的故事  

2008-07-08 22:27:31|  分类: 资料文献 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

原文:吉纳维芙·福斯特    中文翻译:chinaoften

 “独立”一词出现于1776年,通过一本名为《常识》的小册子在美洲的殖民地传播。“哦,热爱人类的你”,激情洋溢的文字写道,“不仅敢于反抗暴政而且敢于反抗暴君的你,请站出来!旧世界的每一个角落都充斥着压迫。新世界即将到来!美国的独立自从反对她的第一支毛瑟枪打响那一刻就开始了。”这些文字在整个美洲引起了强烈反响。人们被这些震耳发聩的言语唤醒。在酒馆里,在农场中,在街道的角落里,在码头上,在边远的殖民地,只要人们聚在一起,就会谈起独立的话题。

托马斯·潘恩触发了他们的议论。作为《常识》的作者,他不仅学识广博,更是思想的大师,应本杰明·富兰克林之邀来到美洲。

“我为《常识》上的观点而着迷,”布伦特里的阿比盖尔·亚当斯在给她费城丈夫的信中写道。“我敢说从新英格兰的所有议会上获得支持独立的选票毫无问题。”

在费吉尼亚也同样没有问题。出席大陆会议的费吉尼亚代表们收到指示,要求他们投支持票。

托马斯·杰菲逊从蒙提塞罗乘他的轻便马车出发时心情相当沉重。他年轻的妻子患了重病,四岁的玛莎可怜地挥动小手和他告别。只有支持独立的指示能让他感觉好些。

但当他在大厅里重新坐在约翰·汉考克对面,成为费吉尼亚的代表之一时,他感到非常满意。费吉尼亚代表团在六月早期提出了“联合殖民地应当自由独立”的议案。

马莎诸塞州和弗吉尼亚州已做好独立的准备,但是宾夕法尼亚和纽约还没有,而其他很多州都不确定。

在所有的州内都有循规蹈矩的保守派人士和受过良好教育且拥用大量财产的人士,对于他们来说对国王不忠的想法是不可想像的。

还有一些人害怕未来。“如果独立,”他们说,“我们就会遭受被暴民统治的危险。如果你投票支持独立,”他们警告出席会议的朋友说,“你就会被绞死”。乔治三世已经将美洲所有的反抗者视为叛国贼,而对于判国罪的处罚就是绞死。”

不仅仅是殖民地,甚至同一家庭的成员也被他们的信念分成两派。托马斯·杰菲逊的表弟约翰·罗道尔夫是一个坚定的保皇派,他已经去了英国,将自己精美的小提琴留给了汤姆。本杰明·富兰克林的儿子威廉,现任新泽西州的总督,也是一个保皇派,后来成了纽约市忠英联合会的主席。

大陆会议充满了无休止的辩论和争吵。双方逻辑的推理使很多代表无法决定,但是逐渐地,约翰·亚当斯说,“一个个坚定了独立的信念。”

一个五人委员会被指定起草一份宣言。其中最活跃的三个人是本杰明·富兰克林,约翰·亚当斯和托马斯·杰菲逊。

“先生”,托马斯·杰菲逊对约翰·亚当斯说,“宣言理所当然应由您来起草。”

“不,”年龄大一些的约翰·亚当斯回复道。“应当由你来做,我会告诉你为什么。你是一个弗吉尼亚人,弗吉尼亚人应当领导这个事业。我不太受欢迎,而你则相反。第三......你可以写得比我好十倍。”

因而托马斯·杰菲逊回到住处,开始了为期八天的写作。初稿完成后,划掉一些句子,又修改了一些,用他的羽毛笔,托马斯写下了《独立宣言》。

讨论和修改其中的一些句子用了几天时间,在此期间,本杰明·富兰克林利用友善的幽默努力使这个敏感的年轻人不至于太泄气。

最终,在七月四日,托马斯·杰菲逊听到他起草的《独立宣言》的定稿被宣读,投票表决并被通过。

“美国曾讨论过的最大的问题就这样决定了,”约翰·亚当斯在给其妻子的信中写道。“1776年的七月二日将被后人作为最伟大的纪念日-整个大陆都会用枪炮,钟声,篝火和彩灯进行庆祝。”

悬挂在钟楼上的由黄铜铸就的巨大的自由之钟,四天后在州议会议场前的广场上召集起费城人民,《独立宣言》被大声宣读。

当一个声音洪亮的男人走上前方那个很小的木制演讲台开始朗读时,自由之钟的最后一声回响与现已广为人知的名句融为一体:

“在人类的发展历史上,”他开始了。当他继续宣读时,人群变得沉寂:“我们认为这些真理是不言自明的,那就是所有人生来都是平等的。他们被上帝赋予了某些不可剥夺的权利。包括生命,自由和对幸福的追求......”

当他结束了最后一个字“荣誉”时,人们激动地欢呼,自由的钟声再次响起。

当羊皮卷复本完成时,作为会议主席的约翰·汉考克,第一个签了字。他将羽毛笔握在手里,将字母写得从未有过的大,在k的收尾处作了一个更加坚毅的转笔,然后用几个幽雅的线条结束了他最著名的签名。

“好了!”他说,“乔治国王不戴眼镜也能毫不费力地看清”。

“先生们,我们现在必须团结一心,”本杰明·富兰克林拿起羽毛笔时说,然后微笑着补充道,“否则我们就会被一个个绞死。”

虽然说得很轻松,但是这些话的背后却是残酷的现实。宣言的签名者已迈出了勇敢的一步。

“我很清楚地意识到”,约翰·亚当斯又一次写道,“要保住这个宣言我们需要以怎样的辛劳,鲜血和财富为代价。”

所有人都知道前方会有很多危机,要处理这些危机需要的不仅仅是豪言壮语,激动欢呼,钟声长鸣,很多时候只有在忍耐,坚毅和自我牺牲中才能考验出一个人的信念是否坚定。

 

英语原文:

The Story behind the Independence of Declaration

by Genevieve Foster

The new word, Independence, came with the year 1776, broadcast through the American colonies by a pamphlet called Common Sense, "O ye that love mankind," rang its challenging words, words that went eching from one end of the continent to the other, "ye that dare not only to oppose tyranny but the tyrant, stand forth! Every spot in the old world is overrun with oppression. The birthday of a new world is at hand! Independence in America should date from the first musket that was fired against her." People were roused by the ringing words. In the taverns, on the plantations, on street corners, and on the wharfs, in the backwoods settlements, whereever people gathered in the colonies they argued about independence.

Thomas Paine had started them talking. For the author of Common Sense was that Jack-of-trades but master of ideas, who had come with Benjamin Franklin's introduction to America.

"I am charmed with the sentiments of Common Sense," wrote Abigail Adams from Braintree to her husband John, in Philadelphia. "I dare say there would be no difficulty in procuring a vote from all the Assemblies of New England for Independency."

There was no difficulty in Virginia either. Virginai delegates to the Continental Congress were instructed to vote for Independence.

Except for those instructions, Thomas Jefferson was downcast as he drove from Monticello in his two-wheel gig. His young wife was very ill, and little four-year-old Martha waved a pitiful good-bye.

But it was a geat satisfaction as he resumed his seat in the hall faceing John Hancock, to be one of the Virginia delegates who early in June proposed the motion "That these united colonies are and of a right ought to be free and independent."

Massachusetts and Virginia were ready for independence, but Pennsylvania and New York were not, and many other colonies were most uncertain.

There were conservative law-abiding people in all the colonies, people of education and property, to whom the idea of being disloyal to their King was inconceivable.

Others were afraid of the future. "With independence established," they said, "we are in danger of being ruled by a riotous mob. If you vote for independence, " they warned their friends in Congress, "you will be hanged." George Ⅲ had denounced all rebels in America as traitors and the punishment for treason was hanging.

Not merely the colonies, but even members of the same family were split apart by their convictions. Thomas Jefferson's cousin John Randolph was a staunch Loyalist and had gone to England, leaving Tom his fine violin. Benjamin Franklin's son William, now governor of New Jersery, was also a Loyalist, and later was to act as president of the Associated Loyalists of New York City.

Endless debates and arguments filled the days of the Congress. The sound reasoning on both sides kept many delegates undecided, but gradually, John Adams said, "one after another became convinced of the truth of Independence."

A committee of five was appointed to put into writing a declaration. The three most active memebers were Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson.

"You, sir," said Thomas Jefferson, turning to John Adams, "will of course draw up the declaration."

"I will not," replied the older man. "You shall do it, and I'll tell you why. You are a Virginian and a Virginian ought to head this business. I am unpopular, you are very much otherwise. Reason three... you can write ten times better than I can."

So Thomas Jeffrson went to his lodgings and for eighteen days worked faithfully on what he had been set to write. When he had finished, crossed out and reworded a few sentences, and laid by his quill, he had written the Decleration of Independence.

Several days were taken up in discussing and changing some of the phrases, during which Benjamin Franklin with his homely humor kept the sensitive young author from becoming too discouraged.

At last, on the fourth of July, Thomas Jefferson heard the final draft of his declaration read, voted upon, and accepted.

"Thus was decided the greatest question which was ever debated in America," John Adams wrote his wife. "The second of July, 1776, will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the greatest anniversary festival-with guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations from one end of the continent to the other."

Ther great bronze Liberty Bell that hung in the belfry called the people of Philadelphia four days  later to hear the Declaration read aloud in the square outside the State House. As a strong-voiced man stepped to the front of the small wooden platform and began to read, the last echoes of the bell caught the now well-known words:

"When in the course of human events," he began. Silence fell as he continued:" we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal. That they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights. That among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happinee..."

As he ended with the last word "honor," the people cheered and the Liberty Bell rang out once more.

When the copy was complete on parchment, John Hancock, as President of Congress, was the first to sign. He took his quill in hand, writing the letters larger than ever before, turning the end of the K with a more determined flourish, and with a couple of graceful scrolls he finished this, his most famous signature!

"There!" said he, "King George will have no trouble in reading that without his spectacles."

"Gentlemen, we must all hang together now," said Benjamin Franklin as he took up the quill, then added with a smile, "or we will all hang separately."

Spoken in jest, there was sober truth behind those words. Signers of the Declaration had taken a daring step.

"I am well aware," wrote John Adams again, " of the toil and blood and treasure that it will cost us to maintain this declaration."

All knew that there was many a crisis ahead that would call for more than brave words, cheers, and bell-ringing, times when only in patience, perseverance, and self-sacrifice could their faith be measured.

 

  评论这张
 
阅读(129)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017