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Extracts from the Code of Hammurabi(汉谟拉比法典精选)  

2008-10-04 10:58:16|  分类: 资料文献 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Hammurabi, once the ruler of Babylon, a city-state in Summer, created the Babylonian Empire(巴比伦王朝) in 1792 B.C. He and his army set out to unite Mesopotamia under his rule. He succeeded in taking over much of central and southern Mesopotamia. Many other kings attempted to control parts of Mesopotamia before and after Hammurabi. He is remembered, however, because of his code of laws.

汉谟拉比,夏莫尔城市国家--巴比伦--曾经的统治者,于公元前1792年缔造了巴比伦王朝。他和他的军队试图将美索不达米亚置于他的统治之下。他成功地占据了美索不达米亚中部和南部的大部分土地。在汉谟拉比之前和之后都有很多国王试图控制美索不达米亚的部分地区。而汉谟拉比之所以能青史留名,则是因为他的法典。

Hammurabi was the first ruler to codify, or bring together, a set of laws. He did not write the laws. He gathered them from the many parts of his empire. The 282 laws were then carved on stone pillares and places throughout the Empire. By reading the laws, Hammurabi's subjects would know what was and what was not lawful.

汉谟拉比是第一位编撰法典的统治者。这些法律并不是他制定的,而是从他帝国的各个地方搜集整理的。282条法令当时在全国范围内被刻在石柱或其他地方供人们查看。汉谟拉比的国民通过阅读这些法令来确定哪些是合法的哪些是违法的。

The laws set up a s trict system of justice. Those who broke the law were punished. Often the punishment was severe. Punishments were worse for public officials and wealthy men than for peasants. The laws also regulated marriage and the family. Every marriage was governed by a marriage contract. Fathers had absolute rule over the family. Women had fewer rights than men.

这部法典建立起一套严格的司法体系。那些违法者要受到惩罚。处罚很严厉。对于官员和富人的处罚比对农民的更重。法典也对婚姻和家庭做了一些规定。婚姻要受婚约的支配。父亲在家庭中享有决定的权力。妇女的权力比男人少。

The following are some laws from the Code of Hammurabi. Subjects of the Babylonian Empire could find a law to govern just about everything they did.

下面是《汉谟拉比法典》中的一些条律。几乎汉谟拉比的国民所做的任何事可以在法典中找到法律依据。

1. If a man brings accusation against another man, charging him with murder, but cannot prove it, the accuser shall be put to death.

4. If he bear [false] witness concerning grain or money, he shall himself bear the penalty imposed in that case.

22. If a man practises robbery and is captured, that man shall be put to death.

195. If a son stikes his father, they shall cut off his hand.

233. If a buidler builds house for a man and does not make its consturction sound, and a wall cracks, that builder shall strengthen that wall at this own expense.

1. 如果有人指控另一个人谋杀,但是却拿不出证据,那么指控都将被处死。

4. 如果有人在粮食和金钱案件中做伪证,那么他将受到与罪犯同样的处罚。

22. 抢劫者一旦被捉住,将被处死。

195. 如果儿子殴打父亲,那么他的手将被砍掉。

233. 如果一位建筑商为其他人建了一座房子,却没有建牢,导致屋墙出现裂缝,则建筑商应自己出钱加固此墙。

《汉谟拉比法典》全文网址:http://www.chinaoften.com/jiashang/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=1384 

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